It includes the creams, phototherapy and, on rare occasions, oral tablets. All medical therapies are under medical supervision.
All medical therapies are effective on hairy areas with pigmented hairs. On non-hairy areas such as wrists, feet, ankles and in presence of grey hair, they have very little or no effect.
These are the best option when Vitiligo consumes less than 5% of the body surface area.
Topical Corticosteroids: This is the most commonly used medication. Prolonged use includes several side effects such as skin atrophy, pimples, stretch marks, etc.
Topical Calcineurin Inhibitors: They do not contain any steroids and are safer. Moreover, they are equally effective as steroids.
Topical Psoralens: Makes skin sensitive to sunrays (ultraviolet rays), stimulates multiplication of melanocytes, thus helping to re-pigment white spots. Unfortunately, it is not a common treatment nowadays because of the sunburn and blisters.
Oral Steroid Mini Pulse Therapy: These are weekly doses. It is very effective in arresting the spread of Vitiligo and moderately effective in producing repigmentation. This treatment is controversial, is associated with several side effects and course of Vitiligo after discontinuation of oral steroids is unpredictable. According to present consensus, it can be recommended for up to 4 to 6 months in patients with rapidly spreading Vitiligo.
Oral Immunosuppressants: Levamisole are used to control the spread of Vitiligo. However, there is not enough data to support their efficacy and are associated with several side effects.
These are occasionally used, and there is not enough data to support the efficacy.
Important Note: It is important to note that since no cause is known, there is no permanent cure for Vitiligo/Leukoderma. The disease can be treated to achieve re-pigmentation of Vitiligo patches, but on the whole, there is no cure from the root.