Acne commonly known as Acne Vulgaris in the medical world, is a condition of skin which occurs when one’s hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. It is one of the most common dermatologic issues faced.
It usually affects the face, forehead, chest, upper back and shoulders. It affects about 80% of teenagers and is almost universal amongst adolescence. It affects adults as well and occurs in males as well as females.
Signs of Acne are:– Blackheads or Whiteheads (occluded pores)
– Pimples (tender red bumps)
– Pustules(bumps containing pus)
– Nodules (large painful lumps under skin)
– Cysts (large lumps filled with pus which look similar to boils)
This condition can cause significant stress to the mental health of a person and may also cause scarring if left untreated. However it is possible to treat the condition under the supervision of a Dermatologist.
Causes Of Acne?
There is no one factor which leads to acne, hence there are number of contributing factors:– Use of incorrect cosmetics
– Change in hormonal levels
– Weather conditions (hot and humid)
– Some medications (steroids etc)
– Though the role of diet is unclear in some cases it may be the contributing factor
However the case, if taken the right treatment it is possible to overcome this issue. There are many treatment options available. Here at Mulekar Clinic, our doctors have a broad-spectrum approach towards you and will consider the best option for you.– Benzoyl Peroxide- It is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent for topical use and is considered first line of treatment for mild and moderate acne. It is available in different forms such as washes, lotions, gels and creams. Its limitations include skin dryness, burning, itching and may cause irreversible discoloration of garments, pillows etc.
– Topical Retinoids- These have been in use for more than 40 years. They include metretinide, retinaldehyde etc. They act by reducing the production of sebum and stop the dead skin cells blocking hair follicles. Adverse effects may include – erythema, scaling and burning sensation.
– Topical Antibiotics- Applied on skin, control the surface bacteria, which aggravate and often foster acne. Adverse effects are minor but may include, peeling, itching, dryness, burning and erythema.
– Other Topical Agents- Salicylic acid, Azelaic acid, lactic acid, and Picolinic acid are also used. All these should be used under the guidance of a dermatologist.
– Chemical Peels- This is another option in person’s with skin photo-type IV-VI. The selection of peeling agent is done cautiously in order to carry out superficial or medium-depth peeling. Commonly used superficial peeling agents are Glycolic acid (GA) and Salicylic acid (SA).
– Lasers and Light-Based Therapies- Light sources and Lasers can be effective adjunct to topical or systemic management of acne. One of the adverse effects may be erythema.
– Oral Medications- Vitamin A derivatives, oral antibiotics like monocucline etc.
Source: Book: Basic Science for Modern Cosmetic Dermatology, Chapter 10: Acne and Cosmetic Care